Who was Patanjali and what are the Yoga Sutras?

Welcome all to the blog of Rishikesh Yog Dham. Today we will answer the most asked question which is who was Patanjali and what are the Yoga Sutras? Yoga, a practice that has exploded in popularity in recent years, reaches far back into the mists of time. But for many practitioners, the wellspring of yogic philosophy remains shrouded in mystery. Enter Patanjali, the enigmatic sage credited with compiling the foundational text of yoga, the Yoga Sutras.

Who Was Patanjali?

Pinpointing Patanjali’s exact place in history proves a challenge. Estimates suggest he lived sometime between 200 BCE and 200 CE, a period rich with philosophical and spiritual ferment in India. While details are scarce, Patanjali is believed to have been a scholar well-versed in various disciplines, including grammar, medicine, and of course, yoga.

The most famous work attributed to him is the Yoga Sutras, a collection of 196 aphorisms (sutras) written in concise and cryptic Sanskrit. These sutras synthesize existing yogic knowledge into a structured, codified system, making Patanjali a pivotal figure in yoga’s evolution. Though other yogic traditions existed before him, the Yoga Sutras stand as the most influential and widely studied text on yoga.


The Yoga Sutras – A Roadmap to Liberation

The Yoga Sutras delve into the nature of reality, the human condition, and the path to liberation (moksha). Patanjali’s core message centers around the concept of citta, often translated as “mind-stuff.” Citta is a dynamic field that encompasses our thoughts, emotions, and perceptions. According to Patanjali, citta’s inherent fluctuations keep us from experiencing our true nature, which is pure consciousness.

The Yoga Sutras offer a method to quiet the fluctuations of citta and achieve a state of lasting peace and freedom. This method is famously known as the Eight Limbs of Yoga (Ashtanga Yoga).


The Eight Limbs of Yoga – A Step-by-Step Guide

The Eight Limbs is a progressive roadmap, with each limb building upon the previous one. The first two limbs, Yama and Niyama, focus on ethical conduct and self-discipline. They establish a foundation of moral behavior and personal responsibility, essential for inner transformation.

The third and fourth limbs, Asana (posture) and Pranayama (breath control), are often the aspects of yoga most familiar in the West. Asana practice cultivates a healthy and strong body, while Pranayama refines and regulates the breath, considered the life force (prana) by yogis.

The next three limbs, Pratyahara (withdrawal of the senses), Dharana (concentration), and Dhyana (meditation), turn inward. Pratyahara involves disengaging the senses from external stimuli, allowing the mind to become less reactive. Dharana focuses attention on a single point, such as the breath or a mantra, while Dhyana cultivates a state of effortless, sustained focus.

Patanjali and Yoga Sutras
Patanjali and Yoga Sutras

The final limb, Samadhi, is the culmination of the entire yogic journey. It is a state of perfect absorption, where the mind dissolves and the true Self (Atman) is directly experienced.

The Yoga Sutras – Beyond the Physical

While the emphasis on physical postures (asanas) might be the most visible aspect of yoga in the West, the Yoga Sutras offer a much more profound and holistic philosophy. The physical practice serves as a preparatory stage, a means to build a strong and healthy body that can support the more subtle inner work.

The true aim of yoga, as outlined in the Yoga Sutras, lies in transcending the limitations of the mind and achieving liberation. Patanjali’s teachings provide a framework for self-exploration, enabling us to understand the workings of our own minds and ultimately, discover the boundless peace and freedom that lies within.

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

The Enduring Relevance of the Yoga Sutras

The Yoga Sutras, despite their ancient origins, continue to resonate with seekers today. They offer a timeless guide for navigating the complexities of the human experience, providing tools for cultivating inner peace, emotional well-being, and a deeper connection to ourselves and the world around us.

Whether you’re a seasoned yogi or a curious beginner, exploring the Yoga Sutras can be a transformative journey. By delving into Patanjali’s wisdom, you embark on a path of self-discovery, one that transcends the physical mat and extends into all aspects of your life.

Patanjali and Yoga Sutras
Patanjali and Yoga Sutras

Unpacking the Yoga Sutras – A Practical Approach

The Yoga Sutras, though profound, can appear dense and challenging at first glance. But with some exploration, their wisdom becomes more accessible. Here are some ways to approach the Yoga Sutras and integrate their teachings into your life:

  • Start with translations and commentaries: Numerous translations and commentaries exist, each offering a unique perspective on Patanjali’s sutras. Choose a translation written in clear, contemporary language, and consider exploring commentaries by renowned yoga teachers.
  • Focus on a single sutra at a time: The Yoga Sutras are best absorbed in small doses. Select a single sutra that resonates with you and spend time reflecting on its meaning. Consider journaling your thoughts, or discussing the sutra with a yoga teacher or fellow practitioner.
  • Apply the teachings on and off the mat: The Yoga Sutras offer guidance for all aspects of life, not just your yoga practice. For instance, the Yamas (ethical principles) can be applied to your interactions with others, while the Niyamas (self-disciplines) can help cultivate a sense of self-care and focus.
  • Embrace the practice of self-inquiry: The Yoga Sutras encourage us to question our assumptions and delve deeper into the nature of our experiences. Meditation and journaling can be powerful tools for self-inquiry, aiding you in understanding your thoughts, emotions, and motivations.
  • Find a teacher or community: Learning yoga from a qualified teacher can provide invaluable guidance and support in your exploration of the Yoga Sutras. Joining a yoga community can also offer a sense of connection and shared purpose.
Patanjali as shesh avatar
Patanjali as shesh avatar

Beyond the Eight Limbs – Additional Yogic Techniques

While the Eight Limbs provide a structured framework, the Yoga Sutras also mention other yogic techniques that can support your practice. These include:

  • Kriya Yoga: Practices for purifying the body and mind.
  • Pranayama: Advanced breathing techniques that go beyond basic breath control.
  • Pratyahara: Techniques for withdrawing the senses from external stimuli, such as meditation with closed eyes.
  • Swadhyaya: Self-study, which can involve studying scriptures like the Yoga Sutras or other yogic texts.
Patanjali as shesh avatar
Patanjali as shesh avatar


Engaging with the Yoga Sutras is an ongoing exploration, not a destination to be reached. As you delve deeper into Patanjali’s teachings, you embark on a journey of self-discovery. The more you practice and reflect, the more you will uncover the hidden potential within yourself. The Yoga Sutras offer a map, but the true adventure lies in taking the first step and embarking on the path towards lasting peace and liberation.

Remember, the Yoga Sutras are not a rigid set of rules, but rather a flexible guide. Adapt their teachings to your own unique needs and circumstances. With dedication and perseverance, you can harness the transformative power of yoga and discover the profound wisdom that lies within the Yoga Sutras.