A Guide to Different Types of Pranayama

Welcome to all the readers in the Rishikesh Yog Dham blog post. Today we will discuss the Types of Pranayama. Pranayama, a Sanskrit term translating to “life-force (prana) control,” is an ancient yogic practice focusing on breath regulation. It’s a cornerstone of yoga, believed to influence the flow of prana through energy channels (nadis) in the body, impacting both physical and mental well-being. By consciously altering breath patterns, pranayama offers a range of benefits, including stress reduction, improved focus, and enhanced energy levels.

Types of Pranayama
Types of Pranayama

The Breath Cycle of Pranayama

Before diving into specific techniques, it’s essential to understand the three fundamental stages of a pranayama cycle:

  • Puraka (Inhalation): Deep and controlled inhalation, typically through the nostrils.
  • Kumbhaka (Retention): Kumbhaka Pranayama refers to holding the breath after inhalation for a set period.
  • Rechaka (Exhalation): Slow and controlled exhalation, usually through the nostrils.

The duration of each stage and the breath ratio (inhalation: retention: exhalation) can vary depending on the specific pranayama technique.

Types of Pranayama
Types of Pranayama

Exploring Different Pranayamas

Here’s a glimpse into some popular pranayamas and their potential benefits.

  • Nadi Shodhana Pranayama (Alternate Nostril Breathing) – The Nadi Shodhana Pranayama calming technique involves inhaling through one nostril while closing the other, then exhaling through the opposite nostril. Their are two types of Nadi pranayama – Surya nadi and Chandra nadi It’s believed to balance the hemispheres of the brain, promoting relaxation and focus.
  • Kapalbhati Pranayama (Skull-Shining Breath)Kapalbhati Pranayama is an invigorating technique that involves forceful exhalations followed by passive inhalations. It’s thought to cleanse the respiratory system, energize the body, and improve circulation.
  • Bhastrika Pranayama (Bellows Breath) – Similar to Kapalbhati, Bhastrika Pranayama involves rapid, forceful breaths, but with more emphasis on both inhalation and exhalation. It’s considered a powerful technique for energizing the body and mind but practice with caution due to its stimulating nature.
  • Bhramari Pranayama (Humming Bee Breath) – The Bhramari Pranayama is a soothing technique involving closing the ears while inhaling and humming a low “Om” sound on exhalation. It’s known for its calming and stress-reducing effects.
  • Sitkari PranayamaSitkari Pranayama is a refreshing technique that involves inhaling deeply through the curled tongue, promoting a cooling sensation. It’s considered beneficial for reducing internal heat and calming the mind.
  • Ujjayi Pranayama (Victorious Breath) – A foundational technique used in many yoga practices, Ujjayi Pranayama involves creating a slight constriction in the throat during inhalation and exhalation, producing a soft, hissing sound. It’s believed to improve focus and concentration.
  • Bahya PranayamaBahya Pranayama, meaning “external breath control” in Sanskrit, is a yogic breathing technique that focuses on expelling the breath completely. It involves deep inhales followed by forceful exhales, with a brief breath retention after exhaling. This practice is believed to improve concentration, digestion, and overall well-being.
  • Kumbhaka pranayamaKumbhaka pranayama, also known as breath retention, is a yoga practice where you hold your breath after inhaling (antara kumbhaka) or exhaling (bahya kumbhaka). The word “kumbhaka” comes from Sanskrit, meaning “pot,” referencing the torso as a vessel for breath. This technique is believed to create a sense of peace and well-being by calming the nervous system and sharpening focus.
  • Plavini pranayama – Plavini pranayama also known as “floating breath” or “swallowing air,” is a yoga technique that aims to regulate prana, or life force, to create a sensation of buoyancy in the body. Practitioners inhale deeply and focus on filling their stomachs with air, rather than the lungs, in an attempt to achieve a lighter feeling. This practice is believed to activate the Manipura chakra, linked to fire and digestion, and enhance awareness.
  • Udgeeth PranayamaUdgeeth Pranayama considered an easy and common practice, translates to “chanting breath.” It involves incorporating sound with your breath, specifically chanting the sacred syllable “OM” on the exhale. This simple practice is believed to resonate within the body and awaken the mind’s potential. By focusing on the sound during exhales, Udgeeth Pranayama is said to improve concentration and address issues like insomnia and depression.
Types of Pranayama
Types of Pranayama

Choosing the Right Pranayama

With a diverse range of pranayamas available, selecting the right technique depends on your individual needs and goals.

  • For Beginners: Nadi Shodhana and Bhramari are excellent starting points due to their gentle and calming nature.
  • For Stress Reduction: Consider Nadi Shodhana, Bhramari, and Shitali, known for their stress-relieving properties.
  • For Energy Boost: Explore Kapalbhati and Bhastrika, keeping in mind their stimulating nature and practicing with caution.
Types of Pranayama
Types of Pranayama

Important Considerations

  • Always practice pranayama on an empty stomach or at least 2-3 hours after a meal for optimal comfort and safety.
  • Listen to your body. If you experience any discomfort, stop the practice and consult a qualified yoga teacher.
  • It’s recommended to learn pranayama techniques under the guidance of a certified yoga instructor.

Advanced Pranayamas and Techniques

The world of pranayama extends beyond the foundational techniques mentioned earlier. For experienced practitioners seeking to deepen their practice, here are some advanced pranayamas to explore:

  • Dirga Pranayama (Three-Part Breath): The Dirga Pranayama technique involves consciously directing the breath to fill the lower, middle, and upper sections of the abdomen and chest. It promotes deep breathing and improves lung capacity.
  • Surya Bhedana Pranayama (Sun-piercing Breath): This energizing technique emphasizes a longer inhalation through the left nostril and a shorter exhalation through the right nostril. It’s believed to stimulate the body’s internal fire (agni) and improve digestion.
  • Chandra Bhedana Pranayama (Moon-piercing Breath): Counteracting Surya Bhedana, Chandra Bhedana involves a longer inhalation through the right nostril and a shorter exhalation through the left nostril. It’s considered calming and balancing, promoting relaxation and sleep.
  • Bastrika Pranayama ( bellows breath with retention): This advanced version of Bhastrika incorporates breath retention (kumbhaka) after exhalation. It’s an intense practice requiring guidance from a qualified teacher.
  • Pranayama with Bandhas (Locks): Bandhas are specific physical locks used in conjunction with pranayama to enhance the flow of prana. Some common bandhas include Jalandhara Bandha (chin lock), Mula Bandha (root lock), Uddiyana Bandha (abdominal lock), and Half Frog Pigeon Pose Practice these techniques only under the supervision of an experienced teacher.
Types of Pranayama
Types of Pranayama

Pranayama for Specific Conditions

Pranayama can be a valuable tool to support overall well-being and manage specific health conditions. Here are some examples:

  • Anxiety and Stress: Techniques like Nadi Shodhana, Bhramari, and Shitali can promote relaxation and reduce stress hormones.
  • Respiratory Issues: Kapalbhati and Bhastrika (practiced with caution) can help clear congestion and improve lung function.
  • Insomnia: Calming techniques like Shitali and Chandra Bhedana can promote better sleep patterns.
  • Digestive Issues: Surya Bhedana can stimulate digestion, while Dirga Pranayama can improve overall gut health.

Pranayama and Meditation

Pranayama and meditation are often practiced together. By regulating the breath through pranayama, practitioners can achieve a calmer and more focused state of mind, ideal for meditation practice.

Types of Pranayama
Types of Pranayama

Safety and Precautions

While pranayama offers numerous benefits, it’s crucial to approach it with caution:

  • Consult a healthcare professional before starting pranayama, especially if you have any pre-existing health conditions.
  • Avoid forceful breathing techniques, particularly if you have high blood pressure or cardiovascular issues.
  • Pranayama should not be practiced during pregnancy.
  • Be mindful of your body’s signals. If you experience dizziness, lightheadedness, or any discomfort, stop the practice and consult a doctor.
Types of Pranayama
Types of Pranayama


Pranayama is a powerful practice with the potential to transform your life. By incorporating these yogic breathing techniques into your routine, you can cultivate inner peace, enhance mental clarity, and elevate your physical and mental well-being. Remember, start slow, listen to your body, and seek guidance when needed. As you delve deeper into the world of pranayama, you’ll embark on a journey of self-discovery, unlocking the immense potential within your breath.

FAQs About Types of Pranayama

1. Why is Pranayama important?

Pranayama is considered a crucial aspect of yoga because it helps to prepare the mind for meditation, improves concentration, and brings about a higher state of awareness. It is also thought to have numerous health benefits, including reducing stress and anxiety, improving lung function, and enhancing overall vitality.

2. How do you start practicing Pranayama?

To start practicing Pranayama, it is recommended to begin with guidance from a qualified instructor. The practice should be done on an empty stomach, in a calm and comfortable setting. Beginners can start with simple techniques like deep abdominal breathing and gradually progress to more advanced practices.

3. Can Pranayama be practiced by anyone?

Yes, Pranayama can be practiced by individuals of all ages and levels of fitness. However, certain techniques may not be suitable for everyone, especially those with respiratory issues or pregnant women. It’s always best to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new practice.

4. How often should Pranayama be practiced?

Pranayama can be practiced daily as part of a regular yoga routine. The frequency and duration can vary depending on the individual’s experience level and the specific techniques being practiced. Consistency is key to experiencing the benefits of Pranayama.

5. Is Pranayama a form of meditation?

Pranayama can be considered a form of meditation that uses the breath as a focal point to quiet the mind. It is often used as a preparatory practice for meditation, helping to settle the mind and body and make it easier to enter a meditative state.